Man. Gas Processes
Contamination Threat Modes
Residuals - Components
Sources of MGP Liquid Effluent
FMG Plants in the US
Parallel MG Technologies
Think you've found a gas works?
Locating and Confirming a Site
Locations of US Gas Plants
FMGP In The News
FMGP In The Arts
Coal-tar Site Litigation
Related sites on the Internet
Literature of Manufactured Gas
Publications by Dr. Hatheway
Slide Shows by Dr. Hatheway
Slide Shows by others
Locations of Gas Plants and Other Coal-tar Sites in the
THE STATE OF MICHIGAN
Following its introduction to manufactured gas in 1849 (Detroit), the all-around
American gas fever reached most of Michigan just before the Civil War, with a
good deal of wood-gas generation, as one would expect from a State with
considerable forest reserves. A second wave of gas plants and plant expansions
began at the turn of the 20th century, embracing carburetted water gas. The
smallest Michigan community to support a manufacture gas plant were the 2.034
people of Grand Ledge (1922).
Michigan innovations include the construction of some of the first (ca. 1910)
form-cast, reinforced concrete generator houses, built in the carburetted water
gas sweep that was going on nationally. About 1915, inclined coal-gas ovens
became popular as an expansion medium in the lower-tier counties. The Michigan
Gas Association sponsored Masters-level gas engineering fellowships at the
University of Michigan, under the direction of Professor Alfred White, and its
stars were prominent gas engineers such as James A. Brown, Frederick W. Seymour
and Frank W. Steer. Consolidation of Michigan gas companies began at Detroit at
the rather late date of 1898, and holding company activity was particularly
active after 1910. from Grand Rapids where pioneer entrepreneurs such as W.A.
Foot, Anton G. Hodenpyl, and H.D. Walbridge operated the Consumers Power Company
Grand Rapids was the American Public Utilities Company, the creation of Kelsey
Brewer & Co. (organized in 1911), as active throughout the United States, most
notably, in the latter case, in Utah. These holding companies first were styled
as investment syndicates and later morphed into full-fledged engineering and
management companies earning a fee based on total quantities generated, thus
fitting nicely into a justifiable cost within the rate structures being
prescribed by public utility commissions. With the New Deal breakup of national
utility holding companies, Consumers Gas and Michigan Consolidated Gas Co.
emerged in the 1930s as the new State-sized versions, and the brutal
Congressional utility hearings and “death sentence” clause of the 1935 Public
Utility Holding Company Act forged the 1940 Presidential campaign of former
liberal Democrat utility attorney Wendell Wilkie (Commonwealth & Southern Co.),
against the unheard but successful third-term candidacy of Franklin D.
Michigan’s industrial plants held early applications (from about 1895) of
producer gas plants supplying fuel gases for a wide variety of heat and power
uses. The automobile industry quickly expanded beyond Detroit and spawned many
individual companies, as well as suppliers, all hungry for gas energy, and many
of these installed their own producer gas plants and by-product coke oven
plants, as well.
Northern Michigan is the scene of many wood distillation plants, uncontrolled
wood-tar pits of charcoal plants, and creosote contamination from wood
Some natural gas entered Michigan in 1898, from Ontario Province, but really
sufficient supplies did not appear until 1927 through 1937, in the southern
counties, and many northern gas plants continued to function until the 1950s.
Geologically, Michigan presents many aggravated gas works pollution problems,
with many relatively porous, near-surface groundwater aquifers and otherwise
plentiful bodies of receiving surface water. The State experienced its first
pollution control efforts against discharge of such toxics as gas works wastes,
Click the blue "EPA" link below to view the
Michigan map of the EPA 1985 Radian FMGP Report.
Click the green "Hatheway" link
below to view the
Michigan map of Professor Hatheway's research.