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    1870 - 1879

 1870s Manufactured gas prices generally drop below $3.00 in big cities and $5.00 in American towns. Introduction of gas purification by iron oxide. Introduction of annular coal-gas condensers. Discovery of coke-production organic chemical by-products.
 1870 Production of aqueous ammonia, for local sale, common to many English gas plants. California legislates end of gas franchises; opens manufactured gas to unheard-of competition. French Army employs gas-filled observation balloons in defense of Paris; Franco-Prussian war. First American attempt to pipe natural gas, Rochester, NY, just a few km; Well turns out dry. Period of amalgamation and consolidation of London gas lighting companies. 1870-1895: Limited use of tar-concrete pavements in U.S.; The pavements (in Washington, D.C.) of the period 1871-1878, which run in depth all the way from 8 to 14 in., are a dense, tough concrete in which the stone is thoroughly coated, and the voids, small as they are, completely filled with a tar which appears as bright and fresh as though just laid."
 1871

First use of concrete in subsurface gas holder "tanks", in composite form of concrete outer wall cast within an inner multi-course brick wall and, at the outer edge, with host earth material, by George T. Livesey, President of South Metropolitan Gas Company of London (employe at Beckton and Bow Commons Gas Works). These tanks also were part of the new record-breaking capacity of 2,000,000 cf. Alternatively it is possible that the method was developed by a Mr. V. Wyatt, of Great Britain, as acknowledged by Mr. W. Richards of London (1878). Rank-order of major gas- producing companies in the U.S.; (1) Manhattan Gas Company, N(2) Brooklyn City Works, NY; (3) Philadelphia Gas Works, PA. Founding of New England Society of Gas Engineers; First such regional group in U.S.

18971-1874: Passage of Gas Works Acts by English Parliament and subsequent transfer of gas plants to more than 50 town councils in England and Wales.

 1872 American Gas Light Association organized at Cincinnati, OH.
 1873

Feb; T.S.C. Lowe achieves world's first functional application of secondary combustion to water gas, creating carburetted water gas machine, at Phoenixville/Norristown, PA. Improvements in lamp burners had diminished importance of cannel coal to produce enriched candle power as an admixture to coking coals commonly utilized to produce illuminating (town) gas. Separate manufacture of scarce cannel-fed gas at town coal-gas plants generally ceases.

San Francisco Gas Company pioneers production of consumer & industrial grades of aqueous ammonia. Original wet lime-purification process now generally obsolete at larger gas works. Bog-ore iron oxide or artificial oxide purifiers now in use for "much, if not all London gas and most of the German cities...." World's first sliding-scale of gas prices initiated, at London. T.S.C. Lowe patents carburetted water gas process and begins fabricating the sets at Norristown, PA. Sharp increase in numbers of manufactured gas plants in U.S.; Related to forthcoming Centennial celebrations. Britain experiences decade of great increase in use of producer-gas engines in its industry.

 1874 Formation of The Society of Gas Lighting, incorporating only activity in New York City. William Foulis invents hydraulic gas-retort stoking machine (UK). Longest petroleum pipeline is 90 km, from refineries to Pittsburgh, PA.
 1875 700 to 800 manufactured gas companies in place in the U.S.; Aggregate capital of $70,000,000 plus.
 1876 George Livesey, London, introduces Composite Tanks for gas holders, concrete and brick. First coal-gas retorts fired with producer gas, at Dessau, Germany Nicholas Otto, of Germany begins production of his perfected producer-gas engines.
 1877 Establishment of The Western Gas Association. Founding of G.M. Hopkins & Co., Company; Civil Engineer & City Atlas Maker; Philadelphia; Maker of excellent city plats for locating and portraying FMGPs; East coast to Kansas City, MO.
 1878 Establishment of The Ohio Gas Association; survey shows wooden gas pipes still used in U.S.
 1879 Electric arc lights first successfully in public streets at Cleveland, OH, by Charles F. Brush. Edward Campbell Jones (Boston) invents first practical coal-retort photometer for temperature estimation. German coal-tar chemist Nietzski formulates rule that dye color deepens with increase in molecular weight and length of benzene chain, in progression of yellow ­ orange ­ red ­ violet ­ blue, and, lastly, green. American chemist Constantin Fahlberg (1850-1910) discovers saccharin, a taste sweetener 500 times more effective than cane sugar; Formulated from toluene and marketed in 1887.
 
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