Man. Gas Processes
Contamination Threat Modes
Residuals - Components
Sources of MGP Liquid Effluent
FMG Plants in the US
Parallel MG Technologies
Think you've found a gas works?
Locating and Confirming a Site
Locations of US Gas Plants
FMGP In The News
FMGP In The Arts
Coal-tar Site Litigation
Related sites on the Internet
Literature of Manufactured Gas
Publications by Dr. Hatheway
Slide Shows by Dr. Hatheway
Slide Shows by others
gas prices generally drop below $3.00 in big cities and $5.00 in American
Introduction of gas purification by iron oxide.
Introduction of annular coal-gas condensers.
Discovery of coke-production organic chemical by-products.
of aqueous ammonia, for local sale, common to many English gas plants. California
legislates end of gas franchises; opens manufactured gas to unheard-of competition.
French Army employs gas-filled observation balloons in defense of Paris;
Franco-Prussian war. First American attempt to pipe natural gas, Rochester,
NY, just a few km; Well turns out dry. Period of amalgamation and consolidation
of London gas lighting companies. 1870-1895: Limited use of tar-concrete
pavements in U.S.; The pavements (in Washington, D.C.) of the period 1871-1878,
which run in depth all the way from 8 to 14 in., are a dense, tough concrete
in which the stone is thoroughly coated, and the voids, small as they are,
completely filled with a tar which appears as bright and fresh as though
First use of
concrete in subsurface gas holder "tanks", in composite form
of concrete outer wall cast within an inner multi-course brick wall and,
at the outer edge, with host earth material, by George T. Livesey, President
of South Metropolitan Gas Company of London (employe at Beckton and Bow
Commons Gas Works). These tanks also were part of the new record-breaking
capacity of 2,000,000 cf.
Alternatively it is possible that the method was developed by a Mr. V.
Wyatt, of Great Britain, as acknowledged by Mr. W. Richards of London
Rank-order of major gas- producing companies in the U.S.; (1) Manhattan
Gas Company, N(2) Brooklyn City Works, NY; (3) Philadelphia Gas Works,
Founding of New England Society of Gas Engineers; First
such regional group in U.S.
of Gas Works Acts by English Parliament and subsequent transfer
of gas plants to more than 50 town councils in England and Wales.
Gas Light Association organized at Cincinnati, OH.
Lowe achieves world's first functional application of secondary combustion
to water gas, creating carburetted water gas machine, at Phoenixville/Norristown,
Improvements in lamp burners had diminished importance of cannel coal
to produce enriched candle power as an admixture to coking coals commonly
utilized to produce illuminating (town) gas.
Separate manufacture of scarce cannel-fed gas at town coal-gas plants
San Francisco Gas
Company pioneers production of consumer & industrial grades of aqueous
Original wet lime-purification process now generally obsolete at larger
Bog-ore iron oxide or artificial oxide purifiers now in use for "much,
if not all London gas and most of the German cities...."
World's first sliding-scale of gas prices initiated, at London.
T.S.C. Lowe patents carburetted water gas process and begins fabricating
the sets at Norristown, PA.
Sharp increase in numbers of manufactured gas plants in U.S.; Related
to forthcoming Centennial celebrations.
Britain experiences decade of great increase in use of producer-gas engines
in its industry.
of The Society of Gas Lighting, incorporating only activity in New York
William Foulis invents hydraulic gas-retort stoking machine (UK).
Longest petroleum pipeline is 90 km, from refineries to Pittsburgh, PA.
to 800 manufactured gas companies in place in the U.S.; Aggregate capital
of $70,000,000 plus.
Livesey, London, introduces Composite Tanks for gas holders, concrete and
First coal-gas retorts fired with producer gas, at Dessau, Germany
Nicholas Otto, of Germany begins production of his perfected producer-gas
of The Western Gas Association.
Founding of G.M. Hopkins & Co., Company; Civil Engineer & City Atlas
Maker; Philadelphia; Maker of excellent city plats for locating and portraying
FMGPs; East coast to Kansas City, MO.
of The Ohio Gas Association; survey shows wooden gas pipes still
used in U.S.
arc lights first successfully in public streets at Cleveland, OH, by Charles
Edward Campbell Jones (Boston) invents first practical coal-retort photometer
for temperature estimation.
German coal-tar chemist Nietzski formulates rule that dye color deepens
with increase in molecular weight and length of benzene chain, in progression
of yellow orange red violet blue, and, lastly, green.
American chemist Constantin Fahlberg (1850-1910) discovers saccharin, a
taste sweetener 500 times more effective than cane sugar; Formulated from
toluene and marketed in 1887.