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  1810 - 1819

 1810s Coal-gas retorts operated in the "high-temperature" range of about 1100 C; Not to increase substantially until about 1910 under improved retort ceramics. There existed much public fear over alleged negative health aspects of manufactured gas.
 1810 First gas lighting in America, by David Melville, at Newport Rhode Island. British Parliament authorizes the King to grant a gas-manufacturing charter. Clegg establishes first "bench" of five retorts (sets), to share a common furnace.
 1811 German mineralogist W.A. Lampadeus lights street in front of his home at Freiburg, Germany. Stonyhurst College, Lancashire, UK, is lit with manufactured gas. Clegg invents the hydraulic main for use with coal-gas retorts.
 1812 While Murdock lights factories, F.A. Winsor receives Royal Charter London & Westminster Gas Light & Coke Company, world's first city gas plant; German colleague F.A. Accum is first Gas Chemist; First city lighting, London, England.
 1813 Clegg appointed Chief Engineer, London Gas Light & Coke Co.; Saves firm from financial ruin. Dec 31: Winsor lights London (Westminster) Bridge, then streets of St. Margaret's, Westminster. Melville receives U.S. patent on factory lighting system for two mills and Providence and a cotton mill at Boston, and accomplishes lighting unidentified coastal light house (1817).
 1814 Natural gas discovered in salt-brine boring at Olive, Noble County, MI. London church lit by gas.
 1815 Clegg invents first wet gas meter and uses the hydraulic main as a non-return liquid seal, screw-retained and clay-luted retort door, and improves lime purification of gas and patents first gas meter; London insurers refuse to write policies on the gas plant; Clegg devises ingenious large-scale demonstration of safety, at London Gas Light & Coke Co., and lights London Guildhall; Has 15 miles of gas pipe in place. F.A. Accum publishes first treatise on gas making and invents light-oil recovery distillation. Gosling & Taylor patent introduction of fish oil into gas retorts at first oil-gas process; Superior in illumination and free of sulphur, but too expensive to compete with coal gas. Origination of British coal-tar light-oil solvents industry (Findlay, 1937, p. 155).
 1816 Invention of the batwing lamp burner, to stay with the gas industry to the end. Invention of air-cooled coal-gas condenser and simple gas washer. Most of central London lit by gas street lamps; Clegg invents first practical gas holder, England. First city gas lighting company established at Baltimore, Maryland, by Rembrandt Peale and others Gas street lamps not in place until 1821 and then probably the first in America. Lampadeus converts Freiburg factory to one of first gas works in Germany. Interior gas lighting installed at New Theater, Philadelphia, PA. (18 Nov). Unidentified person invents the gas plant station meter for gas volumes distributed.
 1817 Clegg invents the telescopic gas holder (gasometer). Rueben Phillips introduces dry lime, Exeter, UK; Slow acceptance from handling/disposal needs.
 1818 First commercial gas plant is constructed at Birmingham, off today's Gas Street. Paris installs a few gas street lamps; Only 40 such lamps in use by 1829, with 3000 oil lamps still in place.
 1818-26 "Great boom" in construction of gas works in Britain; Most towns of > 10,000 persons.
 1819 Portable, compressed gas cylinders introduced in London, at 30 atmospheres.
 
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